June 4, 2023

1. Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis is the systemic inflammation of the liver mainly caused by viruses. The viruses are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E.

Autoimmune diseases, chemical agents, or irradiation can also contribute to the cause of hepatitis.

Other viruses like cytomegalovirus, simplex viruses, etc as well can cause hepatitis. However, we can say that hepatitis is a disease caused by any of the viruses which usually affect the liver.

How do people get infected with Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A

This is abbreviated as HAV. Hepatitis A (HAV) usually affects young people and the spread is by the fecal-oral route.

Fecal-oral route transmission means that the germs (viruses) causing HAV that are found in the stool (feces) of an infected person are passed to the mouth of another person by what he takes through the mouth. The main causes of fecal-oral disease transmission are lack of adequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices.

Hepatitis A has a short incubation period of about 2-6 weeks. The incubation period means the period in which an individual is exposed to an infection and the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. That is, the infection is fecally contaminated hands, food, or water.

Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, occurring mostly in children and usually in asymptomatic.

How do people get infected with Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B virus infection otherwise called serum hepatitis affects both children and adults, but mostly in adults.

Hepatitis B is transmitted through unscreened blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, open wounds, cuts, bites, grazes, blood fluid, close personal contact, and from mother to fetus. It has a long incubation period of 30-120 days.

How do people get infected with Hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C (HCV) is transmitted parenterally from mother to fetus, with unscreened blood transfusions, and contaminated sharp objects. Persons infected with chronic HCV are at risk of developing Cirrhosis and Liver cancer. HCV is asymptomatic, and co-infection with HBV and HIV can bring about HCV diseases.

How do people get infected with Hepatitis D?

Hepatitis D is also known as Hepatitis Delta. Hepatitis D is transmitted parenterally, the same way as Hepatitis B (HBV).

Hepatitis D is also known to exist in co-infection with Hepatitis B (HBV). When co-infection with Hepatitis B can cause Hepatitis B.

How people get infected with Hepatitis E?

Hepatitis E like Hepatitis A is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. That is, fecally contamination of water, hands, and food. Hepatitis E occurs mainly in adults, the incubation period is between 3-6 weeks, and it usually accompanies by symptoms.

17 Top Clinical Symptoms of Viral Hepatitis

1. Feeling of unwell

2. Fever

3. Nausea and vomiting

4. Myalgia and arthralgia

5. Upper abdominal pain duct enlarged liver

6. The distaste for cigarettes among smokers

7. Rashes

8. Gastrointestinal upset

9. Loss of appetite

10. Malaise

11. Jaundice

12. Headache

13. Pains in the muscle and joint

Late Clinical Symptoms of Viral Hepatitis

1. Dark urine

2. Pale stool

3. The yellowness of the eyes (Jaundice)

4. Generalized pruritus

Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis

There are several types of commercial kits available for the detection of antigens or antibodies when diagnosing hepatitis.

Some of the commercials commonly used kits are Enzyme Immunoassay for Hepatitis A virus, Detection of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) by Immunoassay, etc.

Other methods to diagnose viral hepatitis include:

1. Liver function test (LFT)- SGOT, SGPT, and Alkaline phosphatase.

2. Urinalysis

3. Full blood count


1. High intake of carbohydrate diets: when this is not possible due to your condition, then the doctor will admit you and place the person on intravenous fluid.

2. Protein is not restricted unless you have fulminant hepatitis.

3. Essential forte capsule

4. Reducdyn tablets

5. Sorbossa sachets

6. Capsule Ampiclox or any other broad-spectrum antibodies

7. Multivitamin

8. Tablet Piriton

If the jaundice is deepening, then there may be obstruction of the biliary canaliculi. It will be necessary that your doctor adds intravenous Hepabiota.

2. Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)

A peptic ulcer is a medical condition with an open sore or in the row area in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.

A peptic ulcer is a break of the epithelial surface of the gastric mucosa. This, however, exposes the mucosa to acid pepsin secretion.

Peptic ulcer occurs primarily in some individuals who do not take their meals regularly, or in people who take pain killers such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroidal hormones.

The main risk factor for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is H.pylori and NSAIDs. H.pylori is always colonized every region of the world. H.pylori is usually acquired in childhood and continues until it is treated.

Acquiring the infection may be due to a lower socioeconomic status, unsanitary conditions, or crowding. If you experience any of the symptoms, you are supposed to go for the H.pylori test.

Others like gastric ulcers are present in the stomach and duodenal ulcers are present in the first part of the small intestine.

Most ulcers occur in the first layer of the inner lining of the stomach or duodenum and can form a hole that goes through the stomach or duodenum lining called perforation.

Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

1. Helicobacter pylori Infection: This is a bacterium called H.pylori that causes injuries in the lining protecting the stomach thereby making the underlying stomach tissue vulnerable to being attacked by the acidic gastric juice. H. pylori causes the most frequent peptic ulcers that people are suffering. People with peptic ulcers infection have this bacterium growing in their digestive tract while people who have this bacterium in their stomach may not necessarily result in an ulcer.

2. Excess Acid Gastric Juice Production: Excessive production of acidic gastric juice can burn into the protective lining of the stomach and induce inflammation of the underlying unprotected stomach tissue.

Factors that cause excessive production of acid gastric and peptic ulcers

1. Stress and anxiety: Stress and anxiety are common and most frequent which usually raise the acidic production due to response to the sympathetic nervous reaction.

2. Hereditary: Some people with gastric ulcers are a result of a family history of gastric problems. Also, blood group O tends to be more prone to gastric while blood group A tends toward stomach cancer.

3. Skipping meals: This produces more acidic gastric juice when you skip taking a meal at meal time.

4. Alcohol and smoking: Alcohol and smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco tend to increase the high acid formation.

5. Drugs: Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen can irritate the inner lining of the stomach or induce bleeding.

6. Illness: Some severe illnesses such as being on a breathing machine can cause ulcers.

Clinical Symptoms of Peptic ulcers

1. Epigastric pain which usually radiates to the back (may be relieved by food or antacids)

2. Heartburn

3. Severe stomach obstruction

4. The hotness of the body

5. There may be vomiting

6. Discomfort

7. It sometimes increases your blood pressure

8. It is aggravated by drugs such as aspirin; cigarette smoking and alcohol can also contribute to this.

9. Back pain

10. Anorexia (This leads to weight loss)

11. Abdominal pain

12. Nausea

13. Post-prandial abdominal pain


Depending on the type of ulcer, your doctor will request a test of either of the following:

1. H.pylori is the cause of PUD, a test with a non-invasive test for H.pylori (stools antigen, blood or urea breath test) is always recommended for people below 55 years of age.

2. In older people, endoscopy is recommended to establish a diagnosis.

3. Gastric acid secretion test

4. Occult blood


Preventive Measures

1. Regular meals (frequent small meals)

2. Adequate rest: Always give yourself some rest.

3. Antacids at regular intervals: It helps you to relieve some pain, and it is best taken either before a meal or a few minutes after a meal.

4. Quit smoking cigarettes: Smoking or drinking alcohol, cola, coffee, and spicy foods are not good for ulcer patients.

5. NSAIDs: Stop taking drugs like aspirin, phenylbutazone, and Indomethdcir.

6. Sedation is given to the anxious patient.

Specific Measures

The following drugs are used in the treatment of ulcers:

1. Cimetidine (Tagamet)

2. Gastrozepine

3. Aminopeptin

4. Proglumide

5. Zantac

6. Omeprazole

7. Colloidal Bismuth Subcitrate

8. Carbeneoxolonesodium (Biogastrone)

Supportive Drugs

1. Flagyl

2. Hematinics

3. Multivitamin

4. Vitamin C

5. Analgesics

6. Antacids

7. Antibiotics (such as Clarithromycin, and Amoxicillin)

8. Surgery is performed when indicated

Complications of Peptic ulcers

1. Bleeding

2. Perforation

3. Gastric outlet obstruction

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